When it comes to Schubert’s music we speak of ‘landscape.’
— Theodor W. Adorno (1928)

My work on Schubert is emblematic of my main interest: that of 19th-century form. The questions that drive me lie in the intersections of form, style, meaning, and narrative. To this end, my dissertation investigates the structure, formal function, and narrative resonances of the three-key exposition within Schubert’s oevre

Summery and impact of the dissertation: 

In my dissertation, I show that Schubert elevated the second tonal area to be on the same hierarchic level as the outer-two formal areas, and gave that area a flexible formal function. This allowed him to create six novel formal functions by applying a number of what I call “harmonic destabilizing techniques” to the music in that key area. The resulting model is a three-part form, and represents a third, principally 19th-century option for a sonata-form exposition along with normative continuous and two-part expositions.

This explanation clearly goes against previous two-part conceptions of the form, which are based in theories designed for 18th-century repertoire, and requires us to approach these pieces in a more “positive” light—letting the norms and types emerge out of the music rather than using 18th-century theories to dictate how to hear 19th-century pieces. Such a perspective allows features of Schubert's music to come to light on their own rather than as a result of them being deformational to 18th-century practice. Thus, I see this work not only changing the way we think about an entire genre of music—three-key exposition—but also providing a framework for future work on 19th-century music.

Summaries of my chapters are below: 

Chapter 1 puts forth my new definition of three-key expositions, while showing where previous definitions shine and where they go wrong. In particular, I ruminate on where the categories of three-key exposition and trimodular block diverge and overlap, an exercise that helps illuminate the features of his predecessors' music that may have captivated the young Schubert and eventually led to the solidification of this genre. 

Chapter 2 then explores both the compositional methods Schubert used to alter the formal function of the second tonal area—what I call "harmonic destabilizing techniques—and how his treatment of that area affected the long-range narrative trajectory of the exposition. In the process, I put forth six novel formal functions used in his three-key expositions that help capture the formal processes at work in these pieces. 

Chapter 3 elucidates links between Schubert's two- and three-key expositions, showing how his treatment of large-scale harmonic digressions in his two-key expositions is similar to that seen in the second tonal area in the three-key expositions.

Chapter 4 then explores various narrative strategies that can structure our hearings of these pieces. More specifically, it investigates how Schubert often used an aberrant pitch class or harmony to foreshadow later tonal events within these expositions.

Chapter 5 examines Schubert's treatment of the three key areas within his recapitulations. In doing so, this chapter systematically examines both Schubert’s key choices as well as where and how he accomplishes his pre-crux tonal adjustments. One of the main goals of this chapter is to illuminate the vast array of recapitulatory adjustments the composer used for both formal and expressive purposes—adjustments that fly in the face of the historical image of Schubert’s so-called lazy approach to recapitulations..


Additional Work on Schubert

I also plan to publish articles from some subsidiary studies that were motivated by my dissertation, but sit outside its main scope. One such article will examine the troubled publication history of an early Schubert string quartet: D. 68. Drawing from archival work I undertook on Schubert’s compositional sketches in 2014 through a grant awarded by the Presser foundation, I will analyze how editorial decisions to subtract or add musical material in early publications of this work—some supported by Schubert’s sketch material and some not—crucially altered the overall narrative of the piece. I also plan to explore the changing uses of authentic cadences as form-defining markers in 19th-century formal practices.


Schubert's Three-key expositions (Download here)

  • Chapter 1: Defining the Three-Key Exposition

  • Chapter 2: Form-Functional Variety and Expositional Narratives in Schubert's Three-Key Expositions

  • Chapter 3: Schubert's New Forms: Digressions in Schubert's Two-Part Expositions

  • Chapter 4: Foreshadowing Strategies in Schubert's Three-Key Expositions

  • Chapter 5: Tonal Alterations in the Recapitulations of Schubert's Three-Key Expositions


"Rethinking SChubert’s THree-key expositions" (In revision) 

Conference Papers

"foreshadowing strategies in schubert’s three-key expositions"

  • Society for Music Theory (2019)

"Schubert’s New Forms: Digressionary Passages in Schubert’s Two-Key Expositions"

  • Society for Music Theory (2018)

"The Foreshadowing of crisis: Emerging middle keys in schubert's development of the three-key exposition"

  • Society for Music Theory (2015) (Abstract)

  • Music Theory Midwest (2015)

  • Music Theory Society of the Mid-Atlantic (2015)

    • Winner of the 2015 Dorothy Payne Best Student Paper Award